Production in Vietnam
Open or relocate production to Vietnam
In the past few years, Vietnam has taken an active position in attracting foreign manufacturers and relocating production from other countries in Southeast Asia.
There are 5 reasons to open or relocate production to Vietnam:
1. Administrative - organizational
In recent years, the procedure for starting a business for all possible forms of activity in Vietnam is simple and takes from 15 to 45 working days. Many types of activities are possible without attracting a local investor. That is, you personally or a legal entity controlled by yourself can own 100% of the enterprise. Companies with 100% foreign investment do not incur any additional tax or administrative burdens.
To start production, you can choose to open a branch of your company in Vietnam or the representative office of your company. Alternatively, establish a Vietnamese company in the form of a limited liability company, joint stock company, or partnership.
Contact us for more detailed advice.
The population of Vietnam at the beginning of 2021 was about 98.32 million people, of which 68.7% were able-bodied. The average age of the population is 32.5 years, and men and women are approximately equally divided. Of course, the workforce differs from region to region. Let's take a closer look at the minimum wages and qualifications of workers by region.
|№||Hanoi city (North)||Da Nang city (center)||Ho Chi Minh city (South)|
|1||Average salary (for employees with vocational training and higher education, + additional language) (USD)||400-420||240-380||440-460|
|2||Average wages (unskilled workers) (USD)||135-200||135-200||135-200|
|3||Part of employees with vocational training (%)||51||47||49|
|4||Part of employees with good professional training and work experience (%)||38||42||41|
Energy and water resources
Let me remind you that in Vietnam the price of electricity for legal entities and individuals differs, and there is also a division by the time of day. I will give an example of pricing for a business for 2021 three-phase electricity:
|№||Power of electricity used|| Basic hours
| Rush hours
On Sunday no rush hours
|1||Electricity with a voltage of 22kV and above||2 442 (0.1)||1 361 (0.059)||4 251 (0.187)|
|2||Electricity with voltage from 6kV to less than 22kV||2 629 (0.115)||1 547 (0.068)||4 400 (0.193)|
|3||Electricity with voltage below 6kV||2 666 (0.117)||1 622 (0.071)||4 587 (0.201)|
Water supply-sewerage - price for water for industrial enterprises is 11 615 VND (0.511 USD) / m³. The price for water for companies providing services is 22 068 VND (0.971 USD) / m³.
Low labor costs, coupled with low energy and water sanitation prices, make Vietnam one of the lowest operating costs in the region.
Regarding the production resources in Vietnam, it is impossible to ignore the issue of industrial parks (IP), which in turn are divided into special economic, export, and production zones.
At the end of 2020, 370 IP with a total area of 115 400 hectares were organized in Vietnam, of which 260 have already been commissioned and 37.6% are intended for production. The entire area of such facilities is located outside residential areas and has a ready-made infrastructure for locating production facilities. There are even connections for electricity, water, and good driveways.
Businesses investing and operating in industrial parks are eligible for preferential policies to exempt and reduce corporate income tax, exemption and reduction of land rent, and other goodies.
Let's take a closer look at the number, area, and price of industrial parks by region:
|Industrial zone (Ha)||34 818.6||15 864.1||64 517.3|
|Average rent for a finished production facility (USD / m² / 1 month). The rental contract is usually for a maximum of 5 years||3.7 - 4.1||2.8 - 3.5||3 - 4.4|
|Average price for the lease of land for organizing production (USD / m² one-time payment for the entire lease term). Land lease contract for 25 to 50 years.||91 - 107||65 - 85||106 - 111|
|Average price for administrative services (USD / m² / 1 year)||0.7||0.4||0.8|
Vietnam, located in the heart of Southeast Asia, has a unique strategic territory. The long coastline along the East Sea is in close proximity to the world's transport networks and creates ideal conditions for production and logistics. You do not need to send products hundreds of kilometers to the port. In total, there are 15 international ports on the territory of Vietnam, through which about 700 million tons of cargo passed in 2020.
Over the past few years, the road infrastructure has expanded significantly, and new, convenient approaches have appeared from industrial zones to transport hubs. I would also like to note that there are 7 international airports in Vietnam, which carry out not only the transportation of passengers but also cargo.
Rail transportation in Vietnam leaves a lot to be desired. Vietnamese Railways operate intermodal train routes, delivering goods via China into Russia and some countries of the European Union. However, the biggest challenge at present is that Vietnam's rail gauge does not meet the standard 1 435 mm. This factor, as well as the slow ground clearance, make rail transport still unable to keep up with land and sea transport.
This does however create another sector where investors can direct their attention. The Hanoi - Ho Chi Minh high-speed railway line would be very helpful for example.
4. International trade agreements
The trade confrontation between the United States and China is now also playing an important role in locating production in Vietnam. Let me remind you that Vietnam has signed several trade agreements, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership with the United States. Many American textile companies have moved their apparel manufacturing to Vietnam.
The trade agreement and the Investment Protection Agreement between Vietnam and the European Union on June 30 2019, attracted European manufacturers.
Vietnam is a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), which includes 10 countries of the Asia-Pacific region, and of course, since 2007, a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). There are also several agreements with Australia, New Zealand, Chile, South Korea, Japan, India, and other countries. In detail about international trade agreements of Vietnam.
The Vietnamese government offers very weighty incentives and support to its producers. Depending on your type of business, the amount of investment, the number of jobs, and the quality of the equipment used, you can count on both tax and administrative and trade incentives.
|Conditions||Company income tax benefits|
|1|| - Projects in special geographic zones defined by the Government;
- Hi-tech, biotechnology, specific auxiliary industries;
- Important infrastructure projects, social projects in education, sports, and healthcare;
- Large production projects (eg investment capital of 250 million USD and 3 000 jobs (both Vietnamese and overseas personnel), share capital of 500 million USD);
- Projects for the production or processing of agricultural products in remote areas;- Software production, environmental protection.
| - Tax rate of 10% for 15 years or for life for special projects;
- Tax exemption for 4 years;
- 50% tax reduction for a period of 5 to 9 years;
|2|| Projects in special geographic areas determined by the Government:
Production of agricultural machinery and equipment;- Production of high-quality steel.
| - Tax rate 17% for 10 years;
- Tax exemption for 2 years;
- Tax reduction for 4 years;
|3||Projects for the production or processing of agricultural products in conventional locations||- Tax rate 15% for the entire duration of the project|
|4||Investment projects located in industrial zones (except for those located in areas with favorable socio-economic conditions)|| - Tax exemption for 2 years;
- Tax reduction for 4 years;
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that if you imported blanks into Vietnam, or an unfinished product where Vietnam made at least 40% of the final processing, then such goods are considered to be produced in Vietnam. In detail about tax benefits in Vietnam.